Southern laws mandating racial segregation included
These were called “Jim Crow Laws.” The new laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposed “separate but equal” status for African Americans which, in practice, led to inferior economic, social and educational conditions for them.In the North of the country, segregation was not legally condoned, but – in practice – occurred in job discrimination, housing conditions, bank lending practices and so on.What followed was a Reconstruction Era in which the USA reorganized many aspects of federal structure.In the former Confederate states, a series of laws were passed at the end of the 19th century.Other work included labor in mines, rice fields and the construction industry.By the mid-1700s, the process was so fully institutionalized that slaves and their offspring were considered the legal property of their owners.There is also Supremacism, which is the belief that a certain racial or cultural group is superior to another, and therefore has the right to dominate the latter group.
It involves the assumption that people of a particular race share inherent traits, abilities and qualities, and often that people of different races deserve different kinds of treatment within society.
This means that to make a generalization about someone based on their race or ethnicity, for example in a paradigm such as “All white people do X, all black people do Y”, is also inherently racist.
This form of racism is much more pervasive and difficult to define, and can occur in forms such as institutionalized discrimination, racism within social and economic stratification, and the propagation of racial and ethnic stereotypes in the media.
There are many essential racism facts regarding the abolition of slavery in the USA and the events which followed.
In 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation was passed, and after the American Civil War ended in 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in law.
In the Social Sciences, however, ethnicity refers to a socially-defined category of people who identify with one another based on shared ancestral, social and cultural experiences.